Modern Language Association (MLA)
- The works cited page is still in the text of your research paper and will include the page number heading continued from the last page of your text.
- Entitle this page: Works Cited. Center this title at the top of the page. Double space between the title and your first entry.
- List all entries in alphabetical order by last name of the author; sources with no author should be alphabetized by the first important word in the entry.
- In citing more than one work by the same author, give the author's name in the first entry only. Alphabetize the works according to the title. In place of the name of the author in all but the first entry, type three hyphens and a period, skip two spaces, and state title.
- Italicize titles of independently published works: books, periodicals, etc.
- Use quotation marks around titles of short works such as a poem, article, or short story.
- Double-space between lines of an entry and between entries.
- Begin the first line of each entry at the left margin; indent all other lines five spaces.
- Each item in the entry should be separated by a period followed by one space.
- The bibliography page lists documents or sources read during research but not used in the text of your paper. Follow the same format as that of the works cited page.
Highlights of MLA
- One standard universal citation format that applies to every source type.
- Inclusion of “containers” in citations.
- The ability to use pseudonyms for author names
- Adding vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations.
- Omitting the publisher from some source types.
- Omitting the city of publication.
- Flexible date format is acceptable (12 Oct. 2016 vs. Oct. 12, 2016) but must be consistent.
- Inclusion of URLs or digital object identifier (DOI) which is the new standard for locating and citing online electronic resources and publications.
- Date of access is not needed.
- Features that have not changed and are the same as MLA 7:
- Overall principles of citing and plagiarism
- Use of in-text citations and works cited pages
- See MLA practice template for help in completing a citation.
- Follow this standard universal citation format for all source types:
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Source.” Title of Container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location.
Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Simon & Schuster, 2012.
Book with more than one author
Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22.
Book with three or more authors
Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009.
Chapter in a book
Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87.
Bile, Jeffrey. Ecology, Feminism, and a Revised Critical Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership. Dissertation, Ohio University, 2005. UMI, 2006. AAT 3191701.
Encyclopedia or reference book entry
"Ideology." The American Heritage Dictionary. 3rd ed., 1997.
United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil. Government Printing Office, 2007. 110th Congress, 1st session, Senate Report 111-8.
Journal article(scholarly) in print format
Duvall, John N. "The (Super) Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise." Arizona Quarterly, vol. 50, no. 3, 1994, pp. 127-53.
Magazine or periodical article in print format
Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping, Mar. 2006, pp. 143-48.
Newspaper article in print format
Krugman, Andrew. "Fear of Eating." New York Times, 21 May 2007, late ed., p. A1.
Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs. California Department of Social Services, 2007.
II.ONLINE & NON-PRINT
Hollmichel, Stephanie. “Reading on Screens.” So Many Books, 12 Jul. 2015, somanybooksblog.com/2015/07/15/reading-on-screens/.
CQ Researcher Online
Mantel, Barbara. "Trump Presidency." CQ Researcher, 6 Jan. 2017, pp. 1-24. CQ Researcher Online, library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2017010600.
Titanic. Directed by James Cameron, Widescreen ed., Paramount Home Video, 1997.
Kendall, John S. Understanding Common Core State Standards. Alexandria, VA, Assoc. for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2011, EBook Collection, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=381785&site=ehost-live.
eBook read on a personal device
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Kindle ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
Williamson, Kevin D. “From Oxy to Overdose. (Cover Story).” National Review, vol. 68, no. 3, Feb. 2016, pp. 25–29. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=112909947&site=ehost-live.
Taylor. Andrew. “White House Calls for Domestic Cuts to Finance Border Wall.” South Florida Times, vol. 27, no. 13, 30 Mar. 2017, p. 6A. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=n5h&AN=122269129&site=ehost-live
Spartan, Joe. "Re: Help with assignment." Received by Susie Scholar. 1 Dec. 2016.
Image found on Web
Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html.
Spartan, Joe. Personal interview. 23 May 2017.
Journal article online
Inada, Kenneth. "A Buddhist Response to the Nature of Human Rights." Journal of Buddhist Ethics, vol. 2 1995, blogs.dickinson.edu/buddhistethics/2010/04/05/a-buddhist-response-to-the-nature-of-human-rights/
Opposing Viewpoints in Context
"Net Neutrality." Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, Gale, 2016. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/POPAEC782084913/OVIC?u=lom_accessmich&xid=573678c5.
Television program or Netflix
"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox. WXIA, Atlanta. 19 Jul. 1998.
“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.
@tombrokaw. "SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign." Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.
Video or DVD
Birth of a Nation. Dir. David W. Griffith. 1915. Image Entertainment, 1998. DVD.
Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England. Purdue U, Aug. 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html.
“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.
- The educational version of EasyBib is no longer available but this citation guide & examples from are helpful.
- EasyBib also makes available these Website evaluation guidelines.
Online citation tools (free)
- See citation examples for citing Library of Congress primary source material.
- MLA style is explained at Purdue University Online Writing Lab, including new MLA 9th edition updates.
- Use a bibliography template or a citation tool machine. These services both support MLA.
- See chart of APA examples and APA Style Guidelines.
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